Stop Mosquitoes To Spread Malaria.
Genetic Turn May Stop Mosquitoes To Spread Malaria
Scientists have found a way to prevent the spread of malaria, genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes carrying the synthetic genes to limit the transmission of the parasite in the blood when the insect bites its human host.
The development is considered a potential breakthrough in preventing the spread of one of the most dangerous diseases in the world. Malaria kills up to one million people annually, mostly children living in Africa where the disease is endemic, and hits another 500 million victims who become seriously ill.
Ten years ago, scientists have created the first genetically modified mosquitoes, but their potential use for controlling the transmission of malaria has been hampered by the inability of theoretical insects designed to replace non-genetically modified mosquitoes into the wild that carrying the parasite from the blood.
However, new research has shown that it is possible to communicate rapidly mosquitoes genetically modified malaria-prevention genes of wild mosquitoes with the other gene, which extends the properties of GM-producing cells within the sperm of men with mosquitoes.
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The plan is to physically attack a synthetic gene, called a homing endonuclease gene that the gene of malaria and put the entire genetic construct in the male GM mosquitoes released into the wild. Endonuclease gene should ensure that almost all the sperm produced by men GM will present the next generation of malaria mosquitoes.
Without the endonuclease gene, only half of the male sperm will make GM a gene-blocking malaria, as one would expect the normal 50:50 ratio of the state of classical Mendelian. This severely limits the possibility of genetically modified mosquitoes and Outbreed and more like their wild cousins, while the endonuclease gene to cause the property to spread rapidly through wild mosquitoes.
Professor Andrea Crisanti of Imperial College London says that laboratory tests have shown that the endonuclease gene is highly effective in spreading through the functionality of GM in a cage population of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, a species of malaria transmission in Africa.
When GM introduced a few men, laboratory populations of mosquitoes, the characteristic pink GM accounts for about 50 percent of the mosquitoes within 12 generations in captivity, the first use – just a few months time.
“This is an exciting development in technology that I hope will pave the way for solutions to many global health problems. It shows a great potential for controlling these disease-bearing mosquitoes,” said Professor Crisanti.
“Malaria remains a devastating disease. There are about 3500 species of mosquitoes in the world, but very few of them transmitting the deadly malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This technology allows us to focus exclusively on the control of most dangerous species, “said Burt.
One of the advantages of using the endonuclease gene is that it can be highly specific for a particular species of mosquito. endonuclease gene designed to work on A. gambiae chromosomes should not affect many other mosquitoes, which do not carry or transmit the malaria parasite, “said Professor Austin Burt of Imperial College.
In our mosquitoes homing endonuclease gene is passed on through reproduction, direct descendants of the company. This gives a measure of biological control will not only ensure the mosquito species, although closely related. “
There are no immediate plans to carry out field trials in Africa, the genetically modified mosquitoes until a laboratory experiment in large mosquitoes under construction in Italy is carried out in the next two years. One of the first tasks of researchers is to identify the genes that fight against malaria to 15 will take the property to be used in genetically modified mosquitoes.
“The question of the release of genetically modified mosquitoes into the environment affects us a lot and that’s why we have to do a lot of research before field trials in Africa, held three or four years,” said Professor Crisanti.
Several genetic features have already been identified, which could limit the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria. In 2002, researchers have discovered a gene that prevents the parasite to pass from the gut of the insect in its salivary glands.
A separate area of ??research is to study the possibility of releasing GM mosquitoes sterile males as a way to fight against the disease, dengue fever, which is also transmitted through a mosquito bite.
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